Principles of Teaching
Bloomsburg University
Dr. Pastore


ABCD Format

Ex. The ninth grade student will be able to recall the definition of "normal distribution" on a short-answer test and write it with 90% accuracy..


Who is the learner? 

ex. 11th grade students
ex. Adult learners
ex. Second language learners

What is the observable behavior?   What task is to be accomplished? Use an action verb and object.

ex. Multiply two numbers together
ex. Alphabetize words
ex. Underline nouns

What are the circumstances for performing the task?  What are the conditions under which the behavior will occur?  Consider limitations or restrictions placed on the student or materials when she/he is being evaluated to determine whether the objective has been attained.

ex. Given a map of the United States of America ...
ex. Without notes
ex. When shown a bird ...

At what degree of proficiency is the task to be accomplished?  What is the criteria for acceptable performance or mastery of the

ex. With 70% accuracy
ex. Three out of four times
ex. Plus or minus 1 centimeter

Class Exercises in Writing Behavioral Objectives


Part 1

Complete the exercises in Part I on your own.  

These objectives  will be reviewed in large group before you proceed to Part II.

Write A, B, C, and D above the appropriate areas on the following objectives:

Students will correctly complete 8 math problems on a quiz that includes 10 problems.

Given a collection of 10 leaves, students will classify all of them into the appropriate family using a taxonomic key.

Given a list of 5 performance objectives on a written assignment, students will correctly label all of the parts as A (audience), B (behaviors), C (condition), or D (degree).

Tenth grade students will write a poem having 14 lines using a theme of their choice.  The poem will be judged by their peers for appropriateness of message and flow of thought with an evaluation form provided by the instructor.

Third grade students will write the letters d, b, and g using cursive style handwriting.  Each letter will be well formed as judged by the instructor.

Part 2

Complete the exercises in Part II on your own. 

You will break into your small groups and check the answers with other group members. 

These objectives will be reviewed in large group when the class is finished.


Read each objective. If it is written in four-component format (Audience, Behavior, Conditions, and Degree), place a check mark in front of the sentence and label each component with an A, B, C, & D above the sentence.   If it is not written in four-component format, correct the objective so that it is written in four-component format.  You should also label corrected sentences with A, B, C, & D above the sentence. 

__1. The student can tell where to obtain auto license tags.

__2. In a laboratory experimental situation, the student will be able to demonstrate the relationship between pressure and temperature as expressed by Boyle's Laws by recording the pressure increase over a temperature range of 100 to 110 degrees Celsius, using the Smith pressure chamber with a safety setting of 40 Newtons.

__3. Given the request, "Recite 'Old Ironsides'," the student will recite that poem orally within five minutes, with no errors, prompting, or pauses.

__4. The student will listen to rap music.

__5. The student supplies the symbol for chemical elements.

__6. Alongside of a highway the student will be able to execute the changing of a flat tire by removing the flat from the car and replacing it with the spare observing safety rules specified for this operation.

__7. Given a 20 item multiple choice test, the student will correctly identify the names of 10 trees from a list of 100 common California specimens.

__8. The student will give the Spanish equivalent to a list of English words.

__9. The student will use a crosscut saw properly and will cut down a tree using proper safety techniques in a ten minute time period.

__10. The student will determine which variables in a research study are the independent variables.



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Raymond S. Pastore, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Education
Center for Technology & Teacher Education
1148 McCormick Center
Bloomsburg University
Bloomsburg, PA 17815-1301