Principles of Teaching
Bloomsburg University
Dr. Pastore

Hemisphericity, Learning Modalities, Learning Styles, & Multiple Intelligence








Learning Modalities

Visual Modality - learn by seeing

Auditory Modality - learn through instruction from self or others

Kinesthetic Learning - learn by doing and becoming physically involved

Tactile Learning - learn by touching objects

Note: Sometimes a student's learning preference is not a student's modality strength



Learning Styles

Concrete Sequential Learners - prefer direct, hands-on experiences presented in a logical sequence

Concrete Random Learners - prefer a more wide-open, exploratory activity such as games, role-playing, simulations, and independent study

Abstract Sequential Learners - are skilled in decoding verbal and symbolic messages, especially when presented in a logical sequence

Abstract Random Learners - interpret meaning from nonverbal communications and do well in discussions, debates, and media presentation.


The Intelligences, in Gardner's Words

Source: "The First Seven . . . and the Eighth: A Conversation with Howard Gardner"
Educational Leadership Volume 55 Number 1 September 1997 

*Linguistic intelligence is the capacity to use language, your native language, and perhaps other languages, to express what's on your mind and to understand other people. Poets really specialize in linguistic intelligence, but any kind of writer, orator, speaker, lawyer, or a person for whom language is an important stock in trade highlights linguistic intelligence.

* People with a highly developed logical-mathematical intelligence understand the underlying principles of some kind of a causal system, the way a scientist or a logician does; or can manipulate numbers, quantities, and operations, the way a mathematician does.

* Spatial intelligence refers to the ability to represent the spatial world internally in your mind--the way a sailor or airplane pilot navigates the large spatial world, or the way a chess player or sculptor represents a more circumscribed spatial world. Spatial intelligence can be used in the arts or in the sciences. If you are spatially intelligent and oriented toward the arts, you are more likely to become a painter or a sculptor or an architect than, say, a musician or a writer. Similarly,
certain sciences like anatomy or topology emphasize spatial intelligence.

* Bodily kinesthetic intelligence is the capacity to use your whole body or parts of your body--your hand, your fingers, your arms--to solve a problem, make something, or put on some kind of a production. The most evident examples are people in athletics or the performing arts, particularly dance or acting.

* Musical intelligence is the capacity to think in music, to be able to hear patterns, recognize them, remember them, and perhaps manipulate them. People who have a strong musical intelligence don't just remember music easily--they can't get it out of their minds, it's so omnipresent. Now, some people will say, "Yes, music is important, but it's a talent, not an intelligence." And I say, "Fine, let's call it a talent." But, then we have to leave the word intelligent out of all discussions of human abilities. You know, Mozart was damned smart!

* Interpersonal intelligence is understanding other people. It's an ability we all need, but is at a premium if you are a teacher, clinician, salesperson, or politician. Anybody who deals with other people has to be skilled in the interpersonal sphere.

* Intrapersonal intelligence refers to having an understanding of yourself, of knowing who you are, what you can do, what you want to do, how you react to things, which things to avoid, and which things to gravitate toward. We are drawn to people who have a good understanding of themselves because those people tend not to screw up. They tend to know what they can do. They tend to know what they can't do. And they tend to know where to go if they need help.

* Naturalist intelligence designates the human ability to discriminate among living things (plants, animals) as well as sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rock configurations). This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherers, and farmers; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef. I also speculate that much of our consumer society exploits the naturalist intelligences, which can be mobilized in the discrimination among cars, sneakers, kinds of makeup, and the like. The kind of pattern recognition valued in certain of the sciences may also draw upon naturalist intelligence.

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Raymond S. Pastore, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Education
Center for Technology & Teacher Education
1148 McCormick Center
Bloomsburg University
Bloomsburg, PA 17815-1301